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Dr Alan Channing

Hot spring environments and ecosystems through time
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Tertiary Fossil Hot Spring Deposits





CENOZOIC HOT SPRING FLORAS
Tectonically and volcanically active regions and Cenozoic volcanic provinces host the majority of the world’s known epithermal gold and silver deposits and represent vast geothermal energy resources.

As sinter deposits are the surface expression of subsurface geothermal circulation and potential mineralization and hence a target in exploration for these resources, reports of fossil hot spring deposits are relatively frequent in Cenozoic (particularly Neogene) strata. Most important amongst the major Cenozoic epithermal provinces are those of the ‘Ring of Fire’ that encircles the Pacific Ocean, which are associated with extensional areas of island and continental margin arcs and back-arc basins. Further examples are associated with continental rifts and extensional continental margins and hot spot volcanism.

New Zealand

Japan

Central America

Nevada Rift, USA
Pliocene - McGinness Hills, Austin


Miocene - Hasbrouk Mountain, Tonopah



Active hot spring systems
Holocene fossil hot spring deposits
Cenozoic fossil hot spring deposits
Mesozoic fossil hot spring deposits
Palaeozoic fossil hot spring deposits

Next - Mesozoic fossil hot spring deposits